Policy on Retraction

Retraction is a mechanism for correcting the literature and alerting readers to publications that contain such seriously flawed or erroneous data that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon. Unreliable data may result from honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error) OR from research misconduct (see Policy on Research Misconduct) OR if the publication is redundant (i.e. when authors present the same data in several publications) OR in cases of plagiarism disclosed after publishing OR failure to disclose conflict(s) of interest (that is likely to influence interpretations or recommendations).  The main purpose of retractions is to correct the literature and ensure its integrity rather than to punish the authors who commit misconduct.

If only a small part of an article reports flawed data, and especially if this is the result of genuine error, then the problem is best rectified by a correction or erratum or corrigendum, whichever suits the purpose.

Journal considers retracting a publication if:

Journal considers issuing an expression of concern if:

 Journal considers issuing a correction if:

Journal does not consider retraction if:

Retraction Notice:

Notices of retraction are linked to the retracted article wherever possible (i.e. in all print and electronic versions) and a separate retraction heading is generated in that issue including the title and all authors. The Retraction Notice is published promptly to minimize harmful effects from misleading publications. The notices are freely available to all readers.



COPE guidelines for retraction of manuscripts – Updated in 2019. Available online at; https://publicationethics.org/newsevents/cope%E2%80%99s-retraction-guidelines