Policy on Corrections, Retractions & Expressions of Concern

The journal follows the publisher's policies outlined below.


Retraction serves as a mechanism to correct the literature and alert readers to publications containing flawed or erroneous data to the extent that their findings and conclusions cannot be relied upon. This may occur due to honest errors, research misconduct, redundancy, plagiarism, or undisclosed conflicts of interest. The primary aim of retractions is to correct the literature and maintain its integrity, rather than to punish authors.

Criteria for Retraction:
  • Evidence of Unreliability: When findings are proven unreliable, whether due to misconduct (e.g., data fabrication) or honest error.
  • Redundant Publication: Findings previously published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission, or justification.
  • Plagiarism: Content has been plagiarized.
  • Failure to Disclose Conflicts of Interest: Undisclosed conflicts of interest that could influence the study's interpretations or recommendations.
Expression of Concern:
An expression of concern may be issued if:
  1. There is inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct.
  2. An ongoing investigation into alleged misconduct is inconclusive or delayed.
Corrections and Errata:
A correction or erratum will be issued if:
  • A minor portion of an otherwise reliable publication is misleading due to honest error.
  • There is an error in the author/contributor list.
Procedure for Retraction:
  • Retraction notices will be linked to the retracted article in all print and electronic versions.
  • A separate retraction heading, including the title and all authors, will be generated in the issue where the retraction occurs.
  • Retraction notices will be published promptly to minimize the harmful effects of misleading publications and are freely available to all readers.

Non-retraction Scenarios:
  • Requests for changes in authorship without doubts about the validity of findings will not be grounds for retraction.

This policy aligns with guidelines provided by prestigious biomedical journals and organizations such as COPE. Discover STM Publishing Ltd. will adhere strictly to these guidelines to ensure the integrity of the scholarly record.