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EISSN: 2710-3471


BioMedica is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal and an official publication of  The University of Health Sciences (UHS), Lahore, Pakistan

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Open access Original Article | September 25, 2023
Analysis of the Relation between Inferior Alveolar Nerve Canal and the Roots of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars in the Local Population of Punjab

Mehtab Ahmad, Abdullah Nasir, Hammad Hassan, Khalfan Haider, Maliha Tariq, Sonia Mubeen

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Background and Objective: It is important to understand the proximity of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IANC) and lower third molar before performing any surgical procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the proximity of the IANC to the lower third molar and the pattern of impaction among the population of Punjab, Pakistan.
Methods: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from December, 2021 to November, 2022 in the Maxillofacial Surgery departments of four private dental institutes in Punjab. A total of 134 patients were recruited. The IANC proximity and impaction pattern of the lower third molars of both sides were assessed using cone beam computed tomography images. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used for analysis and a p-value less than or equal to 0.05 was set as significant.
Results: There were 76 (56.7%) males and 58 (43.3%) females, with the majority belonging to the age range from 40 to 59 years. The mean proximity of IANC to the impacted third molar was 1.87 + 2.33 mm. Sixty-seven participants had IANC in close proximity (less than 1 mm) to the impacted third molar. IANC was positioned apically with the least proximity to the impacted third molar in 56% of the participants. Moreover, 20 (4.9%) impacted third molars, affecting mostly females, were in direct contact with the canal. Most of the impacted third molars were in vertical position [89 (66.4%)] followed by mesioangular [22 (16.4%)] and horizontal [21(15.7%)] positions, respectively.
Conclusion: Most of the patients with impacted third molars had IANC in close proximity (less than 1 mm) to the impacted tooth with a possible risk for nerve injury during surgical extraction making it imperative to assess the position of the IANC before performing dental procedures.

Open access Original Article | September 25, 2023
Interaction between SIRT-1 Solymorphism and Life-Style on Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters in Obese Phenotypes

Sobia Rana, Hina Nawaz

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Background and Objective: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent histone deacetylase. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of fat and glucose metabolism by influencing proteins involved in nutrient sensing and energy regulation. This study examined the effects of the interaction between the SIRT1 rs7069102 variant and lifestyle factors on obesity-associated anthropometric and metabolic phenotypes in the local population of Pakistan.
Methods: The study population incorporated 612 participants comprising an equal number of individuals having both normal body mass index and those who were overweight/obese. Anthropometric indices were assessed by employing standard protocols of corresponding body measurements while metabolic variables were determined by conducting relevant biochemical assays. The data related to lifestyle factors was collected by developing a standard questionnaire. Genotyping of rs7069102 was done by performing a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. The data were analyzed by means of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software by performing regression analyses adjusted for relevant confounders and corrected for multiple comparisons.
Results: The data analyses revealed that the interaction of SIRT1 rs7069102 with low physical activity (LPA) and also with irregular sleepwake cycle (SWC) influenced many anthropometric and metabolic indices such as weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, percent body fat, skinfold thicknesses (triceps, supra-iliac, sub-scapular, abdominal, biceps, and thigh), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity index, lipid accumulation product and triglycerides (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, the interplay of the SIRT1 rs7069102 with LPA and also with irregular SWC may have a considerable impact on adiposity-associated anthropometric and metabolic outcomes in the local population of Pakistan.

Open access Original Article | September 25, 2023
Comparing the Frequency of Flare-Ups in Single vs Multiple Visit Non-Surgical Root Canal Therapy in Multi-Rooted Non Vital Teeth

Maham Anjum, Um-e-Rubab Shirazi, Tabassum Awais, Nighat Shafi, Misbah Ashfaq, Muhammad Mohsin Kamal

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Objective: The objective of the study was to make a comparison between the frequencies of flare-ups occurring in single versus multiple visit non-surgical root canal therapy in multi-rooted teeth with pulpal necrosis.

Materials and Methods: 360 patients with multiple-rooted Non-Vital Teeth between the ages of 20 and 60, from both genders, were selected and randomly assigned into two groups. In group A, patients underwent root canal treatment in single visit. In group B, patients underwent 2 visits for root canal treatment. On follow up, if patient complained of endodontic pain not controlled with medication with or without swelling within 24 to 48 hours postoperatively, then flare-up was noted.

Results: The mean age recorded in group A was 41.90 ± 10.94 years whereas in group B, it was 41.21 ± 9.25 years. 148 (41.11%) were male and 212 (58.89%) were female with male to female ratio of 1:1.4. Frequency of flare-ups was 21 (11.67%) in single visit and in 05 (2.78%) patients in multiple visit non-surgical root canal therapy in multi-rooted teeth with pulpal necrosis with p-value of 0.001.

Conclusion: This study concluded that frequency of flare-ups is lower after multiple visit non-surgical root canal therapy in multi-rooted teeth with pulpal necrosis as compared to single visit.

Open access Original Article | September 25, 2023
Role of Audiovisual Aid in Reduction of Dental Anxiety during Tooth Extraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Ijaz ur Rehman, Palwasha Babar, Uswa Qaiser, Salman Amin, Tooba Saeed, Tahmasub Faraz Tayyab

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Background and Objective: Dental anxiety has been reported to be the fifth most prevalent reason for anxiety among adults. It is a negative psychological effect of the stress-induced, precisely due to dental treatment. This study was conducted to assess the effect of audiovisual aid in reducing dental anxiety during tooth extraction.

Methodology: 162 participants who needed tooth extraction were randomly divided into two groups of 81, each using a simple randomization method using the lottery method. Participants in Group A were given verbal information about the procedure preoperatively, while participants in Group B were shown an audiovisual clip. Preoperative and postoperative anxiety levels were self-reported by the patients on the Visual Analogue Scale from 0 to 10. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 25.

Results: The mean age of the study participants was 35.69. Among the 162 participants, 43.8% were females, and 56.2% were males. The mean score for preoperative anxiety for groups A and B was 6.79 and 7.02, respectively. In both groups, postoperative anxiety levels were 4.37 and 2.33, respectively. A statistically significant association was observed in the reduction of anxiety scores between the two groups.

Conclusion: Audiovisual aid can serve as an effective tool for reducing dental anxiety among patients undergoing tooth extractions.

Open access Original Article | September 25, 2023
Comparison of Helicobacter Pylori Seropositivity in Individuals With and Without Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - An Immunological Analysis

Javeria Nawaz, Ghaniya Ali, Mughees Ahmad

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Background and Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection is more common in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM) than in non-diabetic individuals. Because in diabetes, both cellular and humoral immunity is compromised so that’s why diabetics’ patients are more susceptible to H. pylori infection. Chronic inflammation is a common symptom of H. pylori. To detect and compare H. Pylori IgG antibody in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic individuals.

Methodology: This case-control study was performed at the pathology lab of Gulab Devi Educational Complex Lahore, Pakistan from August 2022 to January 2023. In this study 100 diabetic patients and 100 control subjects included according to inclusion & exclusion criteria. After taking written consent blood sample was collected from diabetic & non-diabetic individuals and their blood sugar random (BSR) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was measured.

Results: In this study, 63 (63%) of the 200 diabetic individuals tested positive for H. pylori antibodies, with 44% of those having BSR > 201 mg/dl or above with “mean  S.D” of BSR was 235.92 ± 93.42. As the P-value (0.01) was less than 0.05, there exists an association between BSR and H. Pylori antibodies in diabetic patients. On the other hand, 58% of diabetics had positive H. pylori IgG antibody whose HbA1c level were > 6.5% with “mean  S.D” of HbA1c was 8.71 ± 2.14. In diabetic individuals, there is a correlation between HbA1c and H. Pylori antibodies since the P-value (0.033) was less than 0.05.

Conclusion: According to our findings in this study, H. Pylori infection and diabetic patients are significantly correlated.

Keywords: Blood Sugar, Helicobacter Pylori, Glycated Haemoglobin, Diabetes Mellitus.

Open access Original Article | September 25, 2023
Effectiveness of 5% Topical Zinc Sulphate Solution in Reduction of Acne Vulgaris in Patients of Lahore

Ayesha Aqeel, Muneeza Qamar, Aneela Gillani, Sehrish Khalid, Mahwish Javed

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Background: Acne vulgaris is a common skin condition caused by excessive sebum production, bacterial colonization, and inflammation.

Objective: To determine the effect of the 5% topical zinc sulfate solution on reducing the GAGS score in patients with acne vulgaris.

Methodology: This descriptive case series study was conducted in the department of dermatology of a public sector hospital from August 1, 2019, to February 1, 2020. A total of one hundred participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Pretreatment photographs were taken, and the baseline GAGS score was documented. Each patient was instructed to use 5% topical zinc sulfate twice daily on the affected area for two months. Compliance was assured by follow-up after every 15 days. The participants were followed up for two months to assess the changes in the GAGS score.

Results: A total of one hundred participants suffering from acne vulgaris were included. The mean age was 28.6 years. There were 46 (46.0%) males and 54 (54.0%) females. After two months of use of the 5% topical zinc sulfate for acne vulgaris, 29 (29.0%) had no response, while 45 (45.0%) and 26 (26.0%) had a fair and good response, respectively.

Conclusion: The 5% zinc sulfate solution demonstrated a significant reduction in the GAGs score. Most responders, particularly those with disease severity grades II and I, exhibited a significant therapeutic response, suggesting it to be an effective mode of treatment for patients with mild to moderate acne.

Open access Review Article | September 25, 2023
Classification of Salivary Gland Lesions on Cell Block Preparations with a Panel of Immunohistochemical Markers - a Rapid, Reliable, and Minimally Invasive Diagnostic Modality

Alveena Nawaz, Fakeha Rehman, Sadia Anwar, Rohma Saqib

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Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is used as a valuable method for examining suspected salivary gland lesions. It is a simple, costeffective, and minimally invasive procedure with high specificity and sensitivity. Due to the cellular heterogeneity and overlapping architectural features, it can be difficult to distinguish between non-neoplastic processes, benign lesions, and/or malignancies in salivary glands on routine stains. Cell block methods are currently replacing surgical biopsy-based diagnostic methods on the basis of utilizing aspirates from FNAC with a rapid and reliable potential for reaching a conclusive diagnosis. Ancillary investigations including a panel of immunohistochemical markers are frequently applied on cytology specimens in the era of precision diagnostics to offer a specific diagnosis and even prognostic information for optimal patient care.

About Editor in Chief

Prof. Dr. Nadia Naseem

Prof. Dr. Nadia Naseem, MBBS, M.Phil, Ph.D

Professor, University of Health Sciences Lahore Pakistan.

Prof. Nadia Naseem had initially joined the Editorial Board as Editor of BioMedica - Official Journal of University of Health Sciences Lahore Pakistan in 2019. In 2022, she was nominated as Editor-In-Chief of the Journal. She is also the Incharge of the Medical Journalism Courses (Certificate and Diploma) offered by the Medical Journalism and Research Department, Univeristy of Health Sciences Lahore, Pakistan.


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