Year 2019, Volume 35 - Issue 1

Open access Review Article | November 03, 2021
Teeth Shade Selection: Minimize the Factors Effecting It

Hussain S, Yazdanie N

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Natural teeth vary in their shape and shade in every individual and that gives a picture of the personality and appearance of our patients. Selecting shade for patients is a subjective thing and is very important step in treatment of prosthodontics. That is why the aesthetics of the prosthesis fails because of wrong colour reproduction. There are many factors which can affect the shade selection procedure which if controlled can give the result which are required. This article aims in collecting all the factors which may affect the shade selection procedure. This information with not help only the students and rese-archers but the clinicians as well.

Open access Original Article | November 03, 2021
Does Foxo3a Gene Affect Life Span in Pakistani Population?

Fazal A, Kabir A, Sear M.J, Ahmed A, Lone K.P, Sheikh R

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Background and Objective: Variations in FOXO3A gene have been associated with longevity and healthy aging. Present study was designed to determine the frequency of FOXO3ASNP rs2802288 and its association with longevity and co-morbidities in a sample of local population exceeding life expectancy.
Methods: The study was carried out on 91 samples collected from individuals of ages 70 years and above from the local population of Lahore. After DNA extraction and quantification, rs2802288 was assayed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 20.
Results: Study population comprised of 91 subjects. 45 (49.5%) being males and 46 (50.5%) females. Mean age of the sample group was 72.4 ± 3.8 years, mean height was 5.3 ± 0.37 feet and mean weight was 65.3 ± 13.8 kg. The major allele of rs2802288 was “G” with a frequency of (59.9%) and the minor allele was “A” and its minor allelic frequency (MAF) was 0.4. Prevalence of co-morbidities was higher in the sedentary group (85%) as compared to the athletic group (56%) (P=0.109). An insignificant association was found between genetic variations rs2802288and longevity (P=0.98) or age related comorbidities (P= 0.379).
Conclusion: This pioneer study on local population shows minor allele of FOXO3 SNP rs2802288 as “A” with an MAF of 0.40. A weak association of genetic variations of rs2802288 and susceptibility to comorbidities and longer life span occurs in our local population. Nevertheless, evidence from literature suggests that a link between FOXO3 gene and longevity may occur, which warrants further exploration.

Open access Original Article | November 03, 2021
Oral Health Awareness in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Survey-Based Questionnaire Study from Lahore, Pakistan

Asad R, Christopher M, Noor M, Dawood H.M, Muneer M.U, Ishaq Y

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Background and Objective: Pakistan has the seventh highest prevalence of diabetes worldwide. Self-care practices play a substantial role in the management of type 2 diabetes and in avoiding associated com-plications. Socio-demographics and knowledge directly affect self-care practices among patients. This study was conducted to assess self-care practices and determine their association with sociodemographic factors among patients with type 2 diabetes in Lahore, Pakistan. In addition, oral health awareness was also assessed among the study participants.
Methods: A purposive sample of 402 patients with type 2 diabetes was selected for this analytical study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect the data. Information was collected regarding sociodemographic variables, clinical factors, oral health awareness, and self-care practices related to diabetes management. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means, and standard deviations were calculated for continuous data.
Categorical variables were analysed using the Chi-square test.
Results: None of the standardized self-care practices of diabetes were observed to be adhered by all patients. For example, only 29.90% of study participants reported checking their feet daily. Sociodemographic factors of gender, educational level, marital status, and income were associated with adherence to self-care practices among patients with diabetes. Patients were least aware (36.30%) of the need to have regular dental check-ups at least two times a year to ensure good oral health
Conclusion: Self‑care practices as well as the oral health care of patients with diabetes are affected by various sociodemographic indicators. Clinically, this information can be applied to design and target education and care planning amongst patients with type 2 diabetes. Providing special attention to patients with diabetes would allow for the provision of realistic recommendations regarding self-care.

Open access Original Article | November 03, 2021
Effects of Fluorides with and without Vitamin E on Body and Liver Weight of Adult Albino Mice

Inam F, Shahid M

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Background and Objective: Fluoride salts generate free oxygen radicals which cause toxicity and effects on body organs. Toxicity due to fluoride is shown as decrease in body weight and organ weight. The present experimental study is designed to investigate the effects of sodium fluoride on body weight and weight of liver of mice and evaluate the protection provided by vitamin E.
Methods: A total of 48 male adult albino mice were divided in to four groups. Group A was given olive oil 6.67 ml/kg/day orally for 30 days. Group B was given sodium fluoride (NaF) 10 mg/kg/day dissolved in distilled water + olive oil 6.67 ml/kg/day both orally for 30 days. Group C was given sodium fluoride 10 mg/kg/day dissolved in distilled water and vitamin E 15 mg/kg/day dissolved in olive oil both orally for 30 days. Group D was given vitamin E 15 mg/kg/day dissolved in olive oil orally for 30 days. Weight of animals was recorded at the start and end of experiment. Animals were sacrificed and their livers were dissected out and weighed.
Results: Animals which received sodium fluoride showed decreased body weight and liver weight as compared to animal group A which received only olive oil (P< 0.001 and 0.001 respectively). Coadministration of vitamin E and sodium fluoride to animals of group C showed statistically significant prevention of decrease in body weight and liver weight as compared to the group which received sodium fluoride, P< 0.001.
Conclusion: Fluoride induced toxicity manifested as decrease in body weight and liver weight was effectively prevented by co-administration of Vitamin E treatment.

Open access Original Article | November 03, 2021
Molecular Evaluation of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore

Khawaja A, Arshad F, Asif M, Ahmad S, Yunus N, Hameed A

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Background and Objective: The versatility of Staphylococcus aureus has been transformed as “Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus”. Among phenotypic methods for detection of MRSA, feasible technique, i.e., cefoxitin disc diffusion test and/or oxacillin disc diffusion test can significantly contribute to-wards reliable detection. The objective of the study is to determine methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by disc diffusion methods; and to evaluate their accuracy with mecA gene PCR for MRSA detection.
Methods: A total of 750 staphylococcus aureus isolates were screened with oxacillin disk (1 g) and cefoxitin disk (30 g) by Kirby-Bauer method using CLSI guideline (2016); to get 105 continuous, nonrepetitive clinical isolates of MRSA. All the methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus isolates were further amplified by polymerase chain reaction for mecA gene detection.
Results: All the 105 MRSA isolates were resistant by both oxacillin and cefoxitin disk diffusion tests. On PCR amplification, out of 105 MRSA (oxacillin resistant) isolates, 83 (79.04%) isolates were positive for mecA gene. Among 105 MRSA (cefoxitin resistant) isolates, 89 (84.76%) were mecA gene positive, by PCR amplification. The sensitivity (96.73%) and diagnostic accuracy (94.28%) of cefoxitin disc diffusion method was higher than oxacillin disc diffusion technique, with reference to PCR as a gold standard.
Conclusion: Cefoxitin disc diffusion method can be employed reliably for detection of mecA gene in MR-SA isolates in settings with limited resources, where molecular methods are not available. This can efficiently reduce the misdiagnosis and dissemination of resistant strains.

Open access Original Article | November 03, 2021
Self-Esteem and Anxiety among Young Adult Male Stutterers of Central Punjab

Sikandar M.Z, Tahir F.N, Shah S.I.A

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Background and Objective: The main objective of the study was to investigate anxiety levels and self-esteem in stutterers and assess their relationship with the severity of stuttering and its chronicity have a direct relation with anxiety and its severity.
Methods: Young adult male volunteers (n = 86, age range 17 – 35 years) recruited for this crosssectional study were placed into three groups; controls (non-stutterers, n = 30), mild to moderate stutterers (n = 26) and moderate to severe stutterers (n = 30). Hamilton anxiety scale (HAM-A) and Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES) were employed for the assessment of anxiety and self-esteem, respectively. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests were performed to observe group mean differences. Pearson’s correlation was computed to assess relationship between anxiety and self-esteem. P-values of < 0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Significantly increased anxiety levels were observed in stutterers as compared to nonstutterers, especially in moderate to severe group. Self-esteem levels of stutterers were not different from those of the non-stutterers. Congenital stuttering was common (48%) and a high proportion (83%) of stutterers reported parental consanguinity in moderate to severe stutterers. No significant correlation was observed between self-esteem scores and anxiety levels (n = 86, Pearson’s R = -0.039, P< 0.721).
Conclusion: Stuttering is associated with anxiety and the increase in severity of stuttering leads to higher anxiety levels. Anxiety also worsens stuttering.

Open access Original Article | November 03, 2021
Relationship of CD4++ Count with Viral Load in HIV/AIDS Patients

Javaid M.I, Nawaz R, Natiq M, Haider S, Mazhar S, Ghazanfar M., Ahmad R, Anwar A

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Background and Objective: CD4+ cell counts and viral loads are the parameters which are used to monitor the health status in individuals infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Viral load affects CD4+ counts, as high levels of virus in blood causes reduction in CD4+ counts leading to symptomatic disease in future. This study was aimed to determine the relationship between CD4+ cell count and viral load in HIV patients.
Methods: One hundred six (106) HIV positive patients presenting at the Pathology laboratory of Allama Iqbal Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan were enrolled for the study. CD4+ counts and viral loads were measured. Association between two parameters was calculated by applying statistical tests. A P value of less than or equal to 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Results: Of the total 106 patients, there were 83 (78.3%) male 17 (16%) female patients and 6 (5.7%) transgenders. Majority of the study population 50/106 (47.2%) had CD4+ lymphocyte count ≥ 500/µl, 38/ 106 (35.8%) cases had CD4+ lymphocyte count in the range of 200 – 499/µl, while CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/µl was seen in 18/106 (17%) cases. Reciprocal relationship was observed between CD4+ count and viral loads. Statistically significant difference was observed (P = 0.012).
Conclusion: CD4+ cell count and viral load are utilized as predictors of progression and severity of HIV infection.